By Matthew J. Goff
The knowledge culture of historical Israel, represented within the Hebrew Bible through Proverbs, task, and Ecclesiastes and within the Apocrypha through Ben Sira and the knowledge of Solomon, can be well-attested within the texts from Qumran. 4QInstruction (1Q26, 4Q415 418, 4Q423), the most important knowledge textual content of the lifeless Sea Scrolls, is taken into account a sapiential textual content essentially as a result of its specific and insistent pedagogical nature. To make this important knowledge textual content extra largely to be had, this quantity bargains a severe variation, translation, and observation at the major fragments of 4QInstruction. It examines specific texts of 4QInstruction in addition to broader concerns, together with its date, style, major issues, and position in moment Temple Judaism. ultimately, so one can contextualize this pivotal paintings, 4QInstruction s dating to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions can be explored.
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Additional resources for 4QInstruction
This fits perfectly with the view that the addressee is a farmer or a petty tradesman, as discussed above. In the Second Temple period, as in most traditional societies, there was no middle class in the modern sense, and most people were small landholders and subsistence farmers (see the second excursus of chapter 3). Such individuals were exposed to the vagaries of the season, and at times, through no fault of their own, were forced to borrow to make ends meet. 87 The mebin is encouraged to act like a “poor” or “humble” man ( ;עני4Q417 2 i 14).
The phrase “all the day long” concluded a phrase that began at the end of line 2, which has not survived. The whole statement probably stressed to the woman that her devotion to marriage and to her husband should be constant (cf. l. 6). The line attests חיקו. ” The “bosom” reading is preferred because this word is prominent in other marriage texts of 4QInstruction. 4Q416 2 iv 5 refers to the wife of the mebin as “the wife of your bosom” ( ;אשת חיקכהcf. 4Q416 2 ii 21). The term, as I argue in the commentary on that text, helps convey the husband’s dominion over his wife.
Rather, the author of the document, as part of his own education, was exposed to the study of teachings preserved in the book 635–36), who explains that the “understanding one” of the verse does not yet possess wisdom but has the potential to acquire it (cf. 8:9; 17:10). 48. The word occurs twenty-seven times in the Hebrew Bible. For a more indepth study of the term, see Lange 2008, 274–77. 49. Prov 1:4–5: “to teach shrewdness to the simple ( … )פתאיםlet the wise ()חכם also hear and gain in learning” (cf.
4QInstruction by Matthew J. Goff