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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Oxygen or cyclo-octatetrene dissolved in the solvent) help in reducing the adverse effects. Other processes that influence laser action are groundstate absorption (GSA from S0 to S1) at the laser wavelength, ␭l, and excited-state absorption (ESA from S1 to S2) at ␭l and at pump wavelength, ␭p. The strength of GSA at ␭l depends on the tail of the absorption band extending into the emission band. Although weak, the large concentration of dye molecules in the ground state makes its influence significant.

This serves to enforce amplification of the spontaneously emitted light predominantly along the axis of the resonator, thus helping in the formation of a directed laser output. The divergence of the laser beam is a measure of its directionality and is determined by the transverse field distribution within the cavity. Detailed analysis and experimental evidence show that the transverse field distribution of the laser at any plane inside the resonator exhibits one or more of certain steady-state forms (transverse modes) that repeats itself after every round trip in a specific class of resonators called stable resonators.

This results in formation of linearly polarized light in the plane of incidence only for specific wavelengths, at which the phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary waves is an integral multiple of ȏ. These wavelengths determine the center of the passbands of the BRF at which the losses are minimum. At other wavelengths, components of electric field that are orthogonal to the plane of incidence exist and suffer reflective losses at the surfaces of the BRF. A stack of BRF plates with increasing thickness is used.

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50.Quantum Electronics by John G. Webster (Editor)

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