By Robert Bideleux
A historical past of jap Europe: difficulty and alter is a wide-ranging unmarried quantity background of the "lands between", the lands that have lain among Germany, Italy, and the Tsarist and Soviet empires. Bideleux and Jeffries research the issues that experience bedevilled this bothered area in the course of its imperial earlier, the interwar interval, less than fascism, lower than communism, and because 1989. whereas in general targeting the fashionable period and at the results of ethnic nationalism, fascism and communism, the booklet additionally bargains unique, awesome and revisionist insurance of: * old and medieval occasions* the Hussite Revolution, the Renaissance, the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation* the legacies of Byzantium, the Ottoman Empire and the Hapsburg Empire* the increase and decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth* the influence of the region's robust Russian and Germanic neighbours* rival suggestions of "Central" and "Eastern" Europe* the Nineteen Twenties land reforms and the Thirties melancholy. supplying a thematic historic survey and research of the formative approaches of swap that have performed the paramount roles in shaping the advance of the region, A background of japanese Europe itself will play a paramount position within the experiences of eu historians.
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Extra info for A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change (1998)
It has always had, and will continue to have, an agenda and a dynamic of its own. In Eastern Europe, to a much greater extent than in the West, fundamental changes in political, social and economic structures or systems have tended to occur only as a result of convulsive or cataclysmic crises, such as those that shook Eastern Europe during the Revolutions of 1848–49, in the wake of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the stock-market crash of 1873, after the Balkan Wars of 1876–78 and 1912–13, amid the political upheavals of 1905–08, during and after the two World Wars, during the 1930s Depression, after the death of Stalin in 1953, during the attempted reforms of 1956 and 1968 and during the disintegration of the communist systems between 1989 and 1991.
Instead ‘we find the predominance of values which are inherently non-negotiable and absolute’. What is more, ’ The leading role of intellectuals in transitional politics is also a factor promoting the primacy of valuebased politics, and the background of many politically active intellectuals in the embattled anti-communist underground opposition can also be adduced to explain the unwillingness to compromise which is a striking feature of post-communist politics’ (Batt 1994a: 37). This does not augur well for the long-term success or durability of the current attempts to build pluralistic liberal democracies and liberal market economies in Eastern Europe.
The absolutist state in the West was ‘the redeployed political apparatus of a feudal class which had accepted the commutation of [seigneurial] dues. ’ The absolutist state in the East, by contrast, was ‘a device for the consolidation of serfdom, in a landscape scoured of autonomous urban life or resistance. The manorial reaction in the East meant that a new world had to be implanted from above, by main force. ’ The maturation of absolutist states in the East during the seventeenth century ‘dealt a death-blow to the possibility of a revival of urban independence in the East.
A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change (1998) by Robert Bideleux