By Lisa Levenstein
During this daring interpretation of U.S. historical past, Lisa Levenstein reframes hugely charged debates over the origins of persistent African American poverty and the social regulations and political struggles that resulted in the postwar city challenge. A stream with no Marches follows terrible black girls as they traveled from a few of Philadelphia's so much impoverished neighborhoods into its welfare workplaces, courtrooms, public housing, colleges, and hospitals, laying declare to an unheard of array of presidency merits and providers. Levenstein uncovers the restrictions that led girls to public associations, emphasizing the significance not just of deindustrialization and racial discrimination but additionally of women's reviews with intercourse discrimination, insufficient public schooling, baby rearing, family violence, and protracted disorder. Women's claims on public associations introduced a number new assets into negative African American groups. With those assets got here new constraints, as public officers often answered to women's efforts via proscribing advantages and trying to keep an eye on their own lives. Scathing public narratives approximately women's "dependency" and their kid's "illegitimacy" put African American ladies and public associations on the heart of the transforming into competition to black migration and civil rights in northern U.S. towns. Countering stereotypes that experience lengthy plagued public debate, A flow with no Marches bargains a brand new paradigm for figuring out postwar U.S. background.
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Additional info for A Movement Without Marches: African American Women and the Politics of Poverty in Postwar Philadelphia (The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture)
Mrs. ≤Ω A√ordable and reliable day care was very di≈cult to ﬁnd. Although the Philadelphia Board of Education ran thirteen day care centers (which had been started by the federal government during World War II) and private agencies operated an additional ﬁfty centers, these facilities served only a tiny fraction of the families in need throughout the city. The situa‘‘Tired of Being Seconds’’ on ADC 37 tion was particularly dire in working-class African American neighborhoods in which rates of female employment were high and the number of day care centers particularly low.
Most had once been married and had once held jobs. They turned to welfare reluctantly. ’’≤≤ Women sought adc when they could no longer support themselves through employment and had primary responsibility for their children. Most lacked child care that would enable them to combine wage-earning with single motherhood. Some had been victimized by domestic violence, and many looked after sick family members or su√ered from debilitating health problems themselves. With little access to a√ordable housing, the apartments they could rent were often dilapidated.
Between 1959 and 1962, Kronick conducted a study of a random sample of 239 Philadelphia adc recipients. She analyzed their casework ﬁles and hired two African American women to conduct interviews with 119 of the women. Kronick wrote several reports exploring her ﬁndings, and many social work graduate students at Bryn Mawr based their Masters’ theses on the information she compiled. In their work, Kronick and these students critically interrogated the negative images of African American ‘‘illegitimacy’’ and the ‘‘culture of poverty’’ found in white newspapers and academic discourse by exploring adc recipients’ employment histories, personal relationships, material circumstances, and survival strategies.
A Movement Without Marches: African American Women and the Politics of Poverty in Postwar Philadelphia (The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture) by Lisa Levenstein