By Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
Although a few vital experiences of yank slavery have explored the formation of slave cultures within the English colonies, no booklet in the past has undertaken a accomplished review of the improvement of the precise Afro-Creole tradition of colonial Louisiana. This tradition, dependent upon a separate language group with its personal folkloric, musical, spiritual, and ancient traditions, was once created via slaves introduced at once from Africa to Louisiana earlier than 1731. It nonetheless survives because the said cultural background of tens of hundreds of thousands of individuals of all races within the southern a part of the kingdom. during this pathbreaking paintings, Gwendolyn Midlo corridor stories Louisiana's creole slave neighborhood in the course of the eighteenth century, targeting the slaves' African origins, the evolution in their personal language and tradition, and the position they performed within the formation of the wider society, economic system, and tradition of the area. corridor bases her learn on examine in a variety of archival resources in Louisiana, France, and Spain and employs a number of disciplines--history, anthropology, linguistics, and folklore--in her research. one of the issues she considers are the French slave exchange from Africa to Louisiana, the ethnic origins of the slaves, and kinfolk among African slaves and local Indians. She provides precise attention to race blend among Africans, Indians, and whites; to the function of slaves within the Natchez rebellion of 1729; to slave unrest and conspiracies, together with the Pointe Coupee conspiracies of 1791 and 1795; and to the advance of groups of runaway slaves within the cypress swamps round New Orleans.
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Extra info for Africans in colonial Louisiana: the development of Afro-Creole culture in the eighteenth century
Includes bibliographical references and index. Title. Title: Afro-Creole culture in the eighteenth century. 3'00496073dc20 CIP The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources. Hall, Esq. Page vii Contents Preface xiii Abbreviations and Short Titles xix Chapter 1 Settlers, Soldiers, Indians, and Officials: The Chaos of French Rule 1 Chapter 2 Senegambia during the French Slave Trade to Louisiana 28 Chapter 3 Death and Revolt: The French Slave Trade to Louisiana 56 Chapter 4 The Bambara in Louisiana: From the Natchez Uprising to the Samba Bambara Conspiracy 96 Chapter 5 French New Orleans: Technology, Skills, Labor, Escape, Treatment 119 Chapter 6 The Creole Slaves: Origin, Family, Language, Folklore 156 Chapter 7 Bas du Fleuve: The Creole Slaves Adapt to the Cypress Swamp 201 Chapter 8 The Pointe Coupee Post: Race Mixture and Freedom at a Frontier Settlement 237 Chapter 9 Re-Africanization under Spanish Rule 275 Chapter 10 Unrest during the Early 1790s 316 Chapter 11 The 1795 Conspiracy in Pointe Coupee 343 Conclusion 375 Appendix A Basic Facts about All Slave-Trade Voyages from Africa to Louisiana during the French Regime 381 Page viii Appendix B African Nations of Slaves Accused of Crimes in Records of the Superior Council of Louisiana 398 Appendix C Slaves Found in Pointe Coupee Inventories between 1771 and 1802: Breakdown by Origin, Nation, Sex, and Percentage in Population 402 Appendix D Evidence of Widespread Survival of African Names in Colonial Louisiana 407 Note on Sources 413 Index 423 Page ix Illustrations Photographs John Law's Concession at Biloxi, 1720 4 Circumcision Ceremony in Senegambia, 1720s 48 Fiche de Désarmement of the First Two Slave-Trade Ships to Louisiana 61 Pilot's Log of le Due de Noaille, December, 1727 81 Indians with a Black Slave among Them, 1735 98 Indigo Making in the French West Indies 125 Fragment of Slave List 167 Inventory of the d'Hauterive Estate 170 Maps Louisiana during the French Period 17 The Senegal Concession 30 Entrance to the Mississippi River at Balize, 1764 121 New Orleans, 1723 138 Location of St.
There was, of course, evidence of more informal relationships as well. For example, the will of a French settler at Natchitoches provided for a cash bequest and freedom for an Osage woman slave. The French settler Jean Huet freed Marie, a Fox Indian woman, and her daughter Jeannette under his will. 26 The Indian frontier was never remote during the period of French rule in Louisiana. It was ever present, dangerous, and complex. Indian neighbors were essential to the colony. The French authorities relied heavily upon the warriors of their Indian allies.
15 There were no systematic censuses taken by the French authorities in Louisiana after 1731. 16 Louisiana was thoroughly Africanized during the early years of colonization, and slaves were still a majority in the French settlements when France abandoned the colony to Spain in 1763 (see Figure 1). Lower Louisiana was not the place to come to establish production of commodities for export. French Louisiana was very poor. Unlike French Canada, where the fishing industry and the beaver trade with the Indians provided a firm economic basis for colonization even though the French population remained small, Louisiana was never a colony of economic exploitation.
Africans in colonial Louisiana: the development of Afro-Creole culture in the eighteenth century by Gwendolyn Midlo Hall