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About the Author

JAMES T. ANDREWS bought his Ph. D. on the collage of Chicago. He has taught as a traveling professor at a number of educational associations, together with the collage of Texas at Austin, and has been affiliated as a senior examine go together with the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of the background of technology and expertise in Moscow and St. Petersburg. He at present is an affiliate professor of recent Russian background at Iowa country college in Ames.

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Additional resources for All Purposes Russian for Adults. A Book for Self-Tuition or Class Use

Example text

It has always had, and will continue to have, an agenda and a dynamic of its own. In Eastern Europe, to a much greater extent than in the West, fundamental changes in political, social and economic structures or systems have tended to occur only as a result of convulsive or cataclysmic crises, such as those that shook Eastern Europe during the Revolutions of 1848–49, in the wake of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the stock-market crash of 1873, after the Balkan Wars of 1876–78 and 1912–13, amid the political upheavals of 1905–08, during and after the two World Wars, during the 1930s Depression, after the death of Stalin in 1953, during the attempted reforms of 1956 and 1968 and during the disintegration of the communist systems between 1989 and 1991.

Instead ‘we find the predominance of values which are inherently non-negotiable and absolute’. What is more, ’ The leading role of intellectuals in transitional politics is also a factor promoting the primacy of valuebased politics, and the background of many politically active intellectuals in the embattled anti-communist underground opposition can also be adduced to explain the unwillingness to compromise which is a striking feature of post-communist politics’ (Batt 1994a: 37). This does not augur well for the long-term success or durability of the current attempts to build pluralistic liberal democracies and liberal market economies in Eastern Europe.

The absolutist state in the West was ‘the redeployed political apparatus of a feudal class which had accepted the commutation of [seigneurial] dues. ’ The absolutist state in the East, by contrast, was ‘a device for the consolidation of serfdom, in a landscape scoured of autonomous urban life or resistance. The manorial reaction in the East meant that a new world had to be implanted from above, by main force. ’ The maturation of absolutist states in the East during the seventeenth century ‘dealt a death-blow to the possibility of a revival of urban independence in the East.

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All Purposes Russian for Adults. A Book for Self-Tuition or Class Use by Charles Duff

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