By Graeme Forbes
Ascriptions of psychological states to oneself and others supply upward thrust to many fascinating logical and semantic difficulties. angle difficulties offers an unique account of psychological nation ascriptions which are made utilizing intensional transitive verbs reminiscent of 'want', 'seek', 'imagine', and 'worship'. Forbes deals a idea of ways such verbs paintings that pulls on rules from normal language semantics, philosophy of language, and aesthetics.
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Extra resources for Attitude Problems: An Essay On Linguistic Intensionality
Just from the point of view of representing composition of meanings, there is little to choose between these two semantics for ‘Tom sleeps’. But we prefer (1b) because of its more intuitive choice of type for proper names. 2 Transitive verbs The general strategy just illustrated is to parse sentences in ways that can be displayed by binary-branching trees, and assign types to expressions so that, for any two sister nodes (nodes on the same level), one of them has the type of a function whose output is of the type at the parent node, and the other has the type of inputs to that function.
And is the function f in Db(bb) such that (i) f ( ) = the function g in Dbb such that g( ) = and g(⊥) = ⊥; and (ii) f (⊥) = the g in Dbb such that g( ) = ⊥ and g(⊥) = ⊥. 30mAttitude Problems c. every is the function f in D(ib)((ib)b) such that, for any g and h in Dib, ( f (g))(h) = iﬀ for every x in Di such that g(x) = , h(x) = . d. 7 In the intended interpretation of Lx, the domain Di is the set of actual individuals, and the primitive expressions are assigned the extensions of their natural-language counterparts, so we can use the latter in deﬁning the former.
The formula sleeps(tom) in (1c) belongs to a type-theoretic language Lx (‘extensional’) in which order of symbols is function-leftargument-right. sleeps(tom) is said to be well-typed because the type of tom is correct as an input for the type of sleeps. tom(sleeps) would be ill-typed, since it makes the meaning of sleeps the input to the meaning of tom (since the meaning of tom is not a function, tom cannot take inputs). At least, tom(sleeps) is ill-typed granted our initial decision that Tom is of type i.
Attitude Problems: An Essay On Linguistic Intensionality by Graeme Forbes