BRS Physiology - download pdf or read online

By Linda S. Costanzo PhD

ISBN-10: 0781798760

ISBN-13: 9780781798761

Written through very hot body structure professor Linda S. Costanzo, this revised 5th version presents an outstanding body structure evaluation for college kids getting ready for the USMLE Step 1. The ebook concisely covers key body structure ideas and comprises medical correlations to stress connections among body structure and medical medicine.

  • NEW! Full-color layout, movement charts, illustrations, and tables that summarize info for handy review
  • Each bankruptcy is written within the well known Board evaluation Series (BRS) define layout and contours bolded keyword phrases to streamline your study
  • Over 350 USMLE-style questions, solutions, and rationales either electronically and in print make stronger your body structure review
  • A FREE significant other web site deals a web booklet and an interactive query financial institution with the entire questions from the booklet so that you can customise your assessment tests!

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Extra info for BRS Physiology

Example text

Are present in the I bands. interdigitate with the thick filaments in a portion of the A band. contain actin, tropomyosin, and troponin. a. Troponin is the regulatory protein that permits cross-bridge formation when it binds Ca2+. b. Troponin is a complex of three globular proteins: ■ ■ ■ Troponin T (“T” for tropomyosin) attaches the troponin complex to tropomyosin. Troponin I (“I” for inhibition) inhibits the interaction of actin and myosin. Troponin C (“C” for Ca2+) is the Ca2+-binding protein that, when bound to Ca2+, permits the interaction of actin and myosin.

VIII. COMPARISON OF SKELETAL MUSCLE, SMOOTH MUSCLE, AND CARDIAC MUSCLE ■ ■ Table 1-3 compares the ionic basis for the action potential and mechanism of contraction in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle is discussed in Chapter 3. t a b l e 1-3 Comparison of Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac Muscle Feature Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Appearance Upstroke of action potential Striated Inward Na+ current No striations Inward Ca2+ current Plateau No No Duration of action potential ~1 msec ~10 msec Excitation–contraction coupling Action potential → T tubules Action potential opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in cell membrane Striated Inward Ca2+ current (SA node) Inward Na+ current (atria, ventricles, Purkinje fibers) No (SA node) Yes (atria, ventricles, Purkinje fibers; due to inward Ca2+ current) 150 msec (SA node, atria) 250–300 msec (ventricles and Purkinje fibers) Inward Ca2+ current during plateau of action potential Ca2+ released from nearby SR ↑ [Ca2+]i Molecular basis for contraction Ca2+–troponin C Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from SR Hormones and transmitters open IP3 – gated Ca2+ channels in SR ↑ [Ca2+]i Ca2+–calmodulin ↑ myosin light-chain kinase Ca2+–troponin C IP3 = inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate; SA = sinoatrial; SR = sarcoplasmic reticulum.

As long as intracellular Ca2+ concentration is low, cross-bridge cycling cannot occur. 6. Mechanism of tetanus. A single action potential causes the release of a standard amount of Ca2+ from the SR and produces a single twitch. However, if the muscle is stimulated repeatedly, more Ca2+ is released from the SR and there is a cumulative increase in intracellular [Ca2+], extending the time for cross-bridge cycling. The muscle does not relax (tetanus). C. Length–tension and force–velocity relationships in muscle ■ ■ Isometric contractions are measured when length is held constant.

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BRS Physiology by Linda S. Costanzo PhD

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