By Geoffrey H. Bourne
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Extra info for Calcification and Physiology
1971) observed that ethane l-hydroxyl-l,l-diphosphate ( E H D P ) prolonged synthesis and slowed the decline in rate of synthesis of alkaline phosphatase in extraskeletal tissues in rats. Urist et al (1971) reported that parenteral administration of E H D P prevented calcification of blood vessel walls and cartilage matrix in the rabbits ear perfused with hypercalcémie solutions. Experimental investigations of the effects on the reactions between intracellular proteins and calcium in ribosomes, mitochondria, and matrix vesicles influencing transport of calcium and phosphate as well as enzymatic cell metabolic processes may change the present emphasis from inorganic to organic chemistry of diphosphonates.
The enzyme is located in the sedimentable fraction and requires zinc and possibly cobalt as cofactors. Magnesium increases with inorganic pyrophosphatase activity probably because magnesium pyrophosphate is the true substrate for the enzyme. Woltgens and Bönting (1973) observed that an enzyme with the above characteristics is not derived from lysosomes of osteoblasts and osteoblasts. Wöltgens et al. (1973) report that three different diphosphonates inhibit inorganic alkaline pyrophosphatase activity of calcifying hamster molars.
Speer and Urist ( 1965 ) suggest that the increased calcium concentration in myofilament may lead to protein-calcium phosphate ion association for nucleation and growth of apatite crystals. Periodic acid Schiff ( P A S ) reactive and metachromatic substances appear in calcified muscle which suggests that glycoprotein with calcium-binding capacity, such as has been demonstrated in calcifying cartilage and bone, may also exist in myofilaments. In myocardium, calcification is almost exclusively confined to intracellular myocardial sites and does not involve interstitial structures or collagen fibrils ( Bonucci and Sadun, 1973 ) .
Calcification and Physiology by Geoffrey H. Bourne