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By Chernikov, Schmidt.

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E. formation of a structure deviating from the bulk structure) or surface roughness to minimize the mutual interactions are not considered. In the case of anisotropic structures (and all crystals are anisotropic by definition), faces and their surface behavior can be very different. For crystals, we can find ionic faces (with an excess charge), electrically neutral, but dipolar, faces, highly polarizable faces or simple hydrophobic faces, all of them having a different surface energy, potentially existing in one and the same chemical crystal system.

Dehydration effects, however, are most strong for ‘hydrotropes’ and molecules exhibiting a strong ‘hydrophobic effect’. This fact explains the strong influence of many surfactants, but also, again, of dye molecules on crystallization events. 8 Properties of Single Crystals and Polycrystals Single crystals and polycrystals differ significantly in their properties due to their different size and also the orientation of the building units. The building units of a single crystal are atoms or molecules, whereas a polycrystal is built up from much larger crystalline particle blocks.

Inorganic ions or organic additives, but also the solvent/solvent mixture itself. The anisotropic growth of the particles can then be explained by the specific adsorption of ions or organic additives to particular faces perpendicular to the growth direction. This strategy of crystal morphogenesis has been known for a long time and has even found industrial application, mainly based on empirical observations. An experimental manifestation of Wulff’s rule can be obtained from the dissolution– recrystallization of high-energy crystal faces in a good solvent.

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Chaotic streamlines by Chernikov, Schmidt.

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