By Barbara Dancygier
This publication deals a brand new and in-depth research of English conditional sentences. Dancygier classifies conditional structures based on time-reference and modality. She exhibits how the fundamental which means parameters of conditionality correlate to formal parameters of the linguistic structures which are used to specific them. eager about English, the examine additionally offers a framework that may be prolonged to a large diversity of grammatical phenomena in lots of different languages.
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Extra info for Conditionals and Prediction: Time, Knowledge and Causation in Conditional Constructions
The speaker is imagining Italy to be her (presently construed) country of permanent residence. But she is not specifically considering living there at the moment of speech or moving there in the future. One can assume that for such cases the time span understood as “state at present,” which invariably encroaches on both the past and the future, is rather broad. Also, there are sentences where the “state at present” would have to be broadened infinitely: (12) If water boiled at 200°C, making tea would take twice as long.
As for the non-temporal classification of the condition, two main types are distinguished almost universally: open and hypothetical. The former (also called real, factual, neutral) do not make any predictions about the fulfillment or non-fulfillment of the condition, while the latter (also termed closed, unreal, rejected, non-factual, counterfactual) express the speaker’s negative belief as to the fulfillment of the condition. Open conditions are most typically future in their time reference (see ).
3 That is, it is claimed that the sentences first implicate that fusion did not result and that Mary is not allergic to penicillin, and then cancel the implicature: (21) (22) If fusion had resulted, there would have been the reaction that we did in fact see. If Mary were allergic to penicillin, she would have exactly the symptoms she is showing. The result of the cancellations is that the protases are now unlikely to be interpreted counterfactually and are open to interpretations such that the fusion occurred and that Mary is allergic to penicillin.
Conditionals and Prediction: Time, Knowledge and Causation in Conditional Constructions by Barbara Dancygier