By Chris Cummins
This publication considers how expressions concerning quantity are utilized by audio system and understood by means of hearers. A speaker's selection of expression could be a advanced challenge even in fairly simple-looking domain names. when it comes to numerical expressions, there are usually many selections that may be semantically appropriate: for example, if 'more than two hundred' is right, then so is 'more than 199', 'more than 150', and 'more than 100', between others. A speaker doesn't choose from those strategies arbitrarily but additionally doesn't regularly keep on with any uncomplicated rule. The hearer is not only in what has been acknowledged but additionally in any longer inferences that may be drawn.
Chris Cummins deals a collection of standards that separately effect the speaker's collection of expression. the method of selecting what to claim is then taken care of as an issue of a number of constraint pride. This strategy allows a number of varied concerns, drawn from ideas of semantics, philosophy, psycholinguistics and the psychology of quantity, concurrently to be built-in inside a unmarried coherent account. This constraint-based version bargains novel predictions approximately utilization and interpretation which are borne out experimentally and in corpus examine. It additionally explains frustrating information in numerical quantification that experience formerly been dealt with via extra stipulative skill, and gives a possible line of assault for addressing the matter of the speaker's selection in additional common linguistic environments.
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Extra resources for Constraints on numerical expressions
In all cases, the system is deterministic, with the constraint ranking yielding a preferred surface form for any given underlying form via the procedure sketched above. As mentioned above, OT constraints fall into two classes: faithfulness constraints, which govern the relation between the input and the output, and markedness constraints, which govern the output and apply irrespective of the input. CONSTITUTION OF AN OT SYSTEM faithfulness constraint; another such constraint that has been postulated is DEP, ‘don’t epenthesize’, which requires that segments not present in the input are not inserted in the output form (McCarthy : ).
One is that we could construe this as a consequence of classical repetition priming. CONSTRUCTING A CONSTRAINT ‐ BASED MODEL A recently mentioned numeral or quantiﬁer is presumably highly activated in the minds of the discourse participants, and hence more accessible at subsequent points in the discourse during which the process of numeral or quantiﬁer selection is again taking place. In the view of Pickering and Garrod (), among others, priming effects of this kind are pervasive in interactions.
For these reasons, I posit a constraint requiring the speaker to use a round number. However, in order to deﬁne and quantify violations of this constraint, we need to adopt a speciﬁc measure of roundness. This is not a completely straightforward matter. For instance, we cannot just appeal to the divisibility properties of a number in order to determine how round it is. Some numbers with lots of divisors, such as , are readily perceived as round, but others, such as , are not. Moreover, large numbers tend to have more divisors, but this does not necessarily lead to them being ‘round’ in any intuitive way: , is a multiple of , and hence has all the same divisors (and many more besides), but does not seem to be as round as in any psychological sense.
Constraints on numerical expressions by Chris Cummins