By Manfred A Hirt, Rolf Bez, Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne
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Extra resources for Construction metallique : Notions fondamentales et methodes de dimensionnement French
Transporting the mixture to the point of laying When spreading the material, it is important that the layer is uniform in grading and moisture content. If the material segregates and/or the moisture content is on either the dry or the wet side of the design moisture content, it will be difﬁcult to achieve good compaction and hence the strength or bearing capacity of the laid material will be lower. This will affect the performance of the material in the ﬁeld. Therefore, it is essential during transportation of the material from the mixer to the site that segregation of the mix is minimised and that the material can be protected from the weather.
The making, curing and testing of specimens will be stated in the speciﬁcation and are normally carried out in accordance with BS 1924 and the relevant BS EN. indd 54 05/10/2006 13:01:27 References and further reading References and further reading References 1 TRL 248. Stabilised sub-bases in road foundations: structural assessments and beneﬁts by BCJ Chaddock and VM Atkinson. TRANSPORT RESEARCH LABORATORY, Crowthorne, Berkshire, 1997. 2 BS EN 14227. Hydraulically-bound mixtures – Speciﬁcations Part 1: Cement bound granular mixtures (CBGM) Part 2: Slag bound mixtures (SBM) Part 3: Fly ash bound mixtures (FABM) Part 4: Fly ash (FA*) for hydraulically-bound mixtures Part 5: Hydraulic road binder bound mixtures (HRBBM) Part 10: Soil treated by cement (SC) Part 11: Soil treated by lime (SL) Part 12: Soil treated by slag (SS) Part 13: Soil treated by hydraulic road binder (SHRB) Part 14: Soil treated by ﬂy ash (SFA) BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION, Chiswick, London.
When no edge restraint is used, the material should be spread over an area slightly larger than that speciﬁed. The excess material provides the edge support so that the material within the treated area can be compacted to speciﬁcation. Normally it is sufﬁcient to spread the material over an area extending 300mm beyond the speciﬁed area. However, it must be remembered that some materials are less stable than others and spread easily under compaction; allowance must be made for them. Surcharge To produce a given thickness of compacted layer, the material should be spread to an adequate surcharge.
Construction metallique : Notions fondamentales et methodes de dimensionnement French by Manfred A Hirt, Rolf Bez, Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne