By Mark Richard
Context and the Attitudes collects 13 seminal essays by way of Mark Richard on semantics and propositional attitudes. those essays enhance a nuanced account of the semantics and pragmatics of our speak about such attitudes, an account on which in asserting what a person thinks, we provide our phrases as a 'translation' or illustration of ways the objective of our speak represents the area. A vast variety of subject matters in philosophical semantics and the philosophy of brain are mentioned intimately, together with: contextual sensitivity; pretense and semantics; destructive existentials; fictional discourse; the character of quantification; the position of Fregean feel in semantics; 'direct reference' semantics; de re trust and the contingent a priori; trust de se; intensional transitives; the cognitive position of stressful; and the customers for giving a semantics for the attitudes with out recourse to homes or attainable worlds. Richard's broad, newly written advent supplies an summary of the essays. The creation additionally discusses attitudes discovered via inclinations and different non-linguistic cognitive constructions, in addition to the controversy among those that imagine that psychological and linguistic content material is dependent just like the sentences that categorical it, and people who see content material as primarily unstructured.
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Extra info for Context and the Attitudes: Meaning in Context, Volume 1
A straightforward account of why the implication does not go through is motivated by the triadic theory of belief. Thus, we have an explanation of how it is that the de re ascription fails to imply the de se ascription. A general treatment of de se ascriptions may be developed along the following lines. First, let us introduce some structure to meanings. Instead of thinking of a meaning as simply a function from contexts to propositions, think of it as a pair 〈〈s1, …, sn〉, M n〉 (n ≥ 0), where each si is a (demonstrative) term-meaning—a function from contexts to individuals—and M n is an n-place predicate-meaning—a function from contexts to n-place properties.
I characterize the triadic theory as in the text because I find it easier to motivate the formalism of Sections II and III in terms of such a characterization. 30 context and the attitudes proposition under it; it is to be understood that, on the triadic view, a proposition p is an object of someone’s belief if and only if he accepts a meaning which, relative to the context of which he is the agent, has p as value. It is not my purpose here to defend this view of belief. I will, however, note that a view of belief along these general lines seems mandatory for those who accept the thesis that demonstratives are directly referential and take propositions to be, in some important sense, objects of belief.
The reasons for treating “Bs” in this way have, for the most part, to do with elegance in presentation. We could, in principle, allow “Bs” to take a sentential complement, so long as we introduced apparatus for indicating what argument positions in an embedded sentence are “specified argument places” in the sense indicated above. Such a treatment, however, is messier than need be. , the contents of belief, in the sense of Section I) are uniformly propositions, nor does it make it at all inappropriate to say that something of the form ┌αBsx̂(ϕ)┐ is (a representation of ) an ascription of belief.
Context and the Attitudes: Meaning in Context, Volume 1 by Mark Richard