By Manfred Schleicher, Frank Blasinger
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Extra resources for Control engineering: A guide for beginners
Practical experience has shown that optimum performance is obtained with a ratio Td = Tn / 4 to 5. This ratio is frequently a fixed setting on the controller, and only one parameter can be varied (usually Tn ). We can summarize by noting that the PID controller brings together the best characteristics of the P, I and D controllers. The P component responds with a suitable manipulating variable when a deviation occurs. The D component counteracts changes in the process variable, and increases the stability of the control loop.
We can see that the proportional band exhibits a falling characteristic that is symmetrical about the setpoint. If the process actually requires the manipulating variable set at the working point, as in our example, the control operates without deviation. Setting the working point in practice In practice, the process characteristic of a process is not usually known. However, the working point correction can be determined by manually controlling the process variable at the setpoint value that the controller is to hold later.
Over a period of time the temperature of the heating element and the probe come closer and closer together; the temperature increases at a lower rate and approaches a final value (see Fig. 23). Fig. 04 37 2 The process As an analogy, consider two pressure vessels which are connected by a throttle valve. In this case, the air must flow into the first vessel initially, and build up a pressure there, before it can flow into the second vessel. Eventually, the pressure in the first vessel reaches the supply pressure, and no more air can flow into it.
Control engineering: A guide for beginners by Manfred Schleicher, Frank Blasinger