By Réka Benczes
Metaphorical and metonymical compounds – novel and lexicalised ones alike – are remarkably considerable in language. but how do we make sure while utilizing an expression comparable to land fishing in order to talk about steel detecting, the referent might be instantly understood no matter if the hearer had no longer been formerly conversant in the compound? for this reason, this ebook units out to discover no matter if the semantics of metaphorical and metonymical noun–noun mixtures will be systematically analysed inside of a theoretical framework, the place systematicity relates to regularities in either the cognitive processes and the products of those methods, that's, the compounds themselves. subsidized up by way of fresh psycholinguistic proof, the ebook convincingly demonstrates that such compounds should not semantically opaque because it has been previously claimed: they could in truth be analysed and accounted for inside of a cognitive linguistic framework, by way of the mixed program of metaphor, metonymy, mixing, profile determinacy and schema conception; and characterize the inventive and associative notice formation procedures that we often follow in daily language.
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Additional info for Creative Compounding in English: The Semantics of Metaphorical and Metonymical Noun-Noun Combinations
Warren found 23 compounds where she was not able to establish the semantic relation between the component nouns. Chapter 2. Alternative theories was very prevailing in linguistic literature, and the vast majority of linguistic analyses did away with a proper account of idioms by arguing that the meaning of such terms had to be learned individually. Warren’s (1992) more recent study analyses changes in word meaning. Although her analysis is not restricted to noun–noun combinations, it is nevertheless an interesting and relevant study, since one of Warren’s hypotheses regarding meaning change is that metaphorical and metonymical extensions constitute one of the possible ways in which memorised meanings may be modified so as to yield a novel contextual meaning (which may become later on a novel dictionary meaning).
That all we know for sure is that there is a relationship of intent or purpose between the head noun . . and its pronominal modifier” (p. 99). It is up to the speaker (based on contextual information for example) to be able to pair abstract notions such as purpose or intent with more specific information regarding the entities involved in the relation (Coulson 2000). Coulson rightly criticises Levi’s theory for not being able to explain the highly specific interpretations that speakers give for nominal compounds.
Levi claims that all complex nominals are derived by two syntactic processes: predicate nominalization and predicate deletion. In the latter case, the nominal compounds are a result of syntactic transformation in which clauses such as “cake with apples” surface as nominal compounds such as apple cake. The semantic relations between the member elements of the compound represent one of the nine recoverably deletable predicates such as cause, have, make, use, be, in, from and about (capitalisation as in the original).
Creative Compounding in English: The Semantics of Metaphorical and Metonymical Noun-Noun Combinations by Réka Benczes