By Anja Wanner
This ebook analyzes the shape and serve as of the English passive from a verb-based viewpoint. It takes the placement that a number of the floor different types of the passive (with or with out thematic topic, without or with item, without or with by-phrase, without or with auxiliary) have a standard resource and are made up our minds via the interaction of the syntactic houses of the verb and normal syntactic ideas. each one structural portion of the passive building is tested individually, and the participle is taken into account the single defining section of the passive.
Special emphasis is wear the life of an implicit argument (ususally an agent) and its illustration within the passive. A evaluate of knowledge from syntax, language acquisition, and psycholinguistics exhibits that the implicit agent isn't just a conceptually understood argument. it really is argued that it's represented on the point of argument constitution and that this is often what units the passive except different patient-subject constructions.
A corpus-based case research at the use of the passive in educational writing analyzes using the passive during this specific sign in. one of many findings is that approximately 20-25% of passives happen in structures that don't require an auxiliary, a outcome that demanding situations corpus experiences at the use of the passive that simply examine complete be-passives. it's also proven that new active-voice structures have emerged that compete with the passive with no need a extra obvious agent. The emergence of those buildings (such as "This paper argues...") is mentioned within the context of alterations within the rhetoric of clinical discourse.
The publication is especially of curiosity to linguists and graduate scholars within the components of English syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.
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Extra info for Deconstructing the English Passive
1999: 479) this is just the idiosyncratic behavior of some verbs. Huddleston and Pullum (2002: 1435) call verbs like repute and rumor “morphologically defective,” indicating that they do not have the full inflectional paradigm that verbs in English normally have. This might take things a step too far – the Oxford English Dictionary still lists them as transitive verbs (see the examples in (26)), but also notes that most transitive uses and meanings have become obsolete. (26) a. b. Why reputest thou the dedes of my merytes to be unworthy?
It is argued that the authority of the parent is in important respects different from the authority standardly ascribed to the teacher. (JME 21)19 By contrast, in the following examples the identity of the agent is important and it cannot be inferred from context. (37) a. b. Even Boris Yeltsin himself has yet to cooperate with giving up the president’s special files. These archives were created by dictator Joseph Stalin who assiduously gathered compromising material on his opposition and colleagues.
What is a passive? 10 (10) a. b. c. /The picture was admired by the client. /The children were frightened by the sudden noise. /I was sent a letter by them. Although the by-phrase itself is optional and although most passives are “short passives,” i. e. passives without a by-phrase, the importance of the by-phrase should not be underestimated, as the presence of the by-phrase can be related directly to the lexical operation on the argument structure of the verb that the passive morpheme represents.
Deconstructing the English Passive by Anja Wanner